Archive for the 'My Marquette Experience' Category

Questioning the Dominant Narrative

books-441866_640By Lupe Serna

Many times, the curriculum is presented through the same dominant narrative. Although this allows for consistency across classrooms, it restricts history teaching to a single story. On the other hand, if we present students with different perspectives and prompt them to question dominant narratives, we open the doors to critical analysis and historical thinking. As a result, students learn how to draw their own conclusions to interpret history, rather than merely accepting the dominant narrative.

Teaching students to question narratives and approach history through different view points can lead to the discovery of new information and facts that are usually disclosed from the dominant narrative of that historical time period.

The Mexican American Civil Rights Movement, also known as the Chicano Movement, is usually briefly mentioned in the classroom. For the most part, students receive a very general understanding of the topic as a fight against discrimination of Hispanics, the fight for farm workers’ rights alongside Cesar Chavez, and the fight for the restoration of land after the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo.

Of course, there are various ways to present this topic. A controversial textbook, “Mexican American Heritage,” describes the Chicano Movement as an attempt to create division. After reading a few excerpts from the book in the article above, I personally did not agree with that perspective. I can see why some might have thought of the movement as one that went against American culture. However, as a Mexican American myself, I think of the Chicano movement as more of a search for identity.

When discussing the Chicano movement, I think it is necessary to go beyond discussing what happened and asking why did it happen? Ultimately, it is the Mexican American people who felt the need to fight for their rights and education. Thus, the focus should be on their own experiences and struggles. Why did Mexican Americans at the time decide to fight for their civil rights? How were they feeling at the time that made them take action? What were they struggling with that led them to take part in a movement?

These questions seem to have straight forward answers: they faced discrimination, their rights as workers were violated, they had limited access to education, among other reasons. That’s as far as discussions in the classroom usually go. The deeper problem that is usually overlooked is the tie to the struggle of identity.

In the movie Selena, there is a scene where her father perfectly describes the struggle of being Mexican American as having to please two different cultures and meeting the expectations of both groups, leading to the feeling of not being good enough to belong to either group.

After the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, many Mexicans were suddenly American. Mexican Americans struggled with this new identity, not completely Mexican but not completely American either. This article from a 1972 newspaper does a great job of explaining the identity crisis among Mexican Americans, claiming it as “One of the most pressing problems for a person of Mexican descent in the United States.” It goes on to talk about the discrimination that they face due to the color of their skin, the feelings of inferiority that they experience in the US, and the pressure to let go of their Mexican roots and customs.

Out of this identity crisis grew great pride in their mixed roots, taking on what came to be known as a Chicano identity. With that pride came awareness. Mexican Americans began to notice the manner in which they were treated differently, like is described in this poem. That awareness is what moved people to action and led to the voicing against injustices, the fight for civil rights and the fight for higher education, which was mostly led by student movements like the Movimiento Estudiantil Chicanx de Aztlán (MEChA).

Among some of the most well known activists of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement are Cesar Chavez and Dolores Huerta, founders of the National Farm Workers Association, later known as the United Farm Workers union. The fight for farm workers’ rights is the most common story that is taught in regards to the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement.

A different side of the movement that is not usually included in the curriculum is the role of a secret FBI program, COINTELPRO, against activists. Left out of the curriculum and, as a result, not forming a part of students’ social studies knowledge is the use of repression and force against activists and radical groups in the sixties, especially the Black Movement.  This video talks more about the attacks against the Chicano Movement.

Most narratives included in the curriculum focus on the positive outcomes of historical topics. Students are not always exposed to the ugly parts of history that led to those victories. In the case of the Mexican American Civil Rights Movement, victories of activists like Cesar Chavez are commonly known, but left in the shadows are those who were silenced.

In the classroom, students should be encouraged to question both what is included in and what is left out of the dominant narrative. While they explore sources and different perspectives, they should question their credibility, their bias, their audience, their intention, and other factors that could influence the manner in which the topic is presented. This is a crucial step to incorporate into the classroom if we want students to learn how to sort out different perspectives to make their own interpretations of social studies.

Drawing from multiple primary sources when preparing for and teaching a lesson on any historical topic opens the doors to historical analysis for students. The sources above, along with the earlier video on COINTELPRO’s attacks on the Chicano Movement, present different information and perspectives on the Chicano Movement.

Social studies is about engaging students in critical thinking and analysis. A great way for them to partake in that is by questioning the narratives presented in the classroom, especially the dominant narrative. Participating in that questioning and inquiry leads to an expansion of students’ knowledge on historical topics because they learn to dig deeper and discover perspectives aside from the dominant narrative.

As teachers, that is what we are called to do — draw from multiple perspectives so that students can question the dominant narrative and make their own interpretations about the manner in which historical topics are presented.

Supervisors and Supervisees: Advice from an Alumna

We caught up with CECP alum, Jaimie Hauch, to see how her career post-Marquette has been going!

Can you tell us a little about yourself? What’s your title, brief job description, academic background?

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I wear many hats at my current job. I am an individual provider (certified to work with both the mental health and substance abuse population), oversee our Intensive Outpatient Program, supervise interns, and engage in some administrative duties. I enjoy wearing many hats because no day is ever the same! I received my bachelor’s in Psychology and a minor in Business Management from Carroll University in Waukesha, WI. Then I came to Marquette where I received my master’s in Community Counseling.

 

How did your time at Marquette prepare you for your career? Were your expectations on target based on your experiences?

My time at Marquette provided me with a solid foundation to build my practice and career on.

How does your experience as a supervisor differ from your time as a supervisee? Does it affect your interactions with other co-workers?

It is very different being on the supervisor side vs. supervisee side, but I enjoy it. I feel my time as a supervisee has helped me grow into the supervisor that I am. I took away things that I enjoyed from my experiences as a supervisee and changed the things that I did not find helpful or found frustrating as a supervisee. For me personally, my role as a supervisor does not impact my interactions with my co-workers and I am grateful for that as I know it can be a difficult area for people. I have been blessed with a great team at West Grove Clinic and they all support me as a supervisor, which is great! I love knowing that if I need assistance, am having a hard day, or want to share accomplishments as a supervisor, I have co-workers that I can turn to for support.

What is your favorite Marquette memory?

My absolute favorite memory is getting to see Sara Bareilles in concert at Marquette.

What recommendations do you have for students and/or professionals supervising students?

For supervisors to remember their own experiences and to incorporate what they liked and to change what they didn’t like about their supervision experience. Additionally, to give constructive feedback – so share areas for the supervisee to improve on, but also high light their accomplishments. When the supervisee only hears poor feedback, I believe it reflects in their work. For supervisees – utilize the supervision time you are given and to come prepared to learn and have questions. To a certain extent, you get to make your supervision experience what you want it to be. So, if you are not actively engaged in your supervision, you likely are going to walk away from the supervision experience feeling a lack of fulfillment.

You can learn more about the College of Education along with our Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology program by visiting us online!

Social Studies Embedded In Our Lives

10012162166_cde34d427e_bBy Lupe Serna

Growing up, my least favorite subject in school was always social studies. I didn’t enjoy it, it never stuck with me, I just knew I had to take it. I would take notes, study the material, take the test, and then eventually forget most of what I “learned.”

Of course, now I realize I must have never really learned it but, rather, memorized it.

The thing is, I always associated social studies with history, specifically, American history. That’s all it ever was to me. And, quite frankly, it was boring. I heard the same story over and over again each year. But even that wasn’t enough to learn it. You would think that after so many years of being taught the same parts of history something would stick with me. But that was not the case.

As a Spanish-speaking, Mexican immigrant, I could not relate to the material. I was not able to personally connect with, much less engage in, social studies class. Perhaps that’s why I always wrongly associated social studies with history, because I never saw myself reflected in the class content. As a result, I wasn’t able to take the material and apply it to my own life, I wasn’t able to make the necessary connection between the content and reality, I couldn’t partake in authentic intellectual work.

As a future educator, I now realize that that has been the traditional approach to teaching social studies for quite some time now. Fortunately, it doesn’t have to be like that. We have the power to change it.

By taking different, non-traditional approaches to the teaching and practice of social studies, students’s retainment of material and ability to explain it highly increases.

If students feel connected to the material, if they see themselves reflected through the content and are fully engaged participants in their own learning, they are more likely to retain what they learn in the classroom and carry it with them to use those skills and strategies in the outside world.

In other words, authentic intellectual work of social studies is constructing knowledge and being able to transfer that understanding into different aspects or situations in our lives.

What exactly does this mean for the classroom?

Authentic intellectual work means that students do so much more than just learn the material or attain knowledge. It means students actually understandthe material. Not only that, they take it a step further than understanding and they, one, discover the content’s value beyond school and, two, take that disciplined inquiry and apply it in their lives.

But before I go on, it is important to clarify what social studies actually consists of.

There really is no set definition for social studies. Usually, when people hear the word social studies, they think of history, politics, geography, and international relations. At least, that’s what I always thought of.

Not many realize that social studies is so much more than just history. Social studies includes topics such as personal idenity, culture, race, language, religion, community involvement, social justice, civil plans and so much more. In a nutshell, social studies includes anything and everything relating to the human society and social relationships.

For the most part, we don’t really think about social studies as something we do. Surprisingly enough, we do in fact “do” social studies on a daily basis, at times when we least expect it. We do social studies by something as simple as interacting with members in our community, actively responding to current events or natural disasters, fundraising money for organizations or our own communities, acting or taking part in a school play that reenacts a moment in history, partaking in civil rallies demanding social justice, etc.

Take, for example, the many times throughout history when civilians have reacted to and spoken out against social injustices by taking to the streets to protest. It happened back during the Civil Rights Movement and it continues to happen today, the most recent example of nation-wide protests being those held to call for the protection of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program. In protests like these, participants “do” social studies in the following ways:

  1. Stay informed of current events and actively participate in their communities
  2. Use freedom of speech to stand up for what they believe in
  3. Are aware of and accept cultural differences and diversity
  4. Are informed about the effect of certain political decisions on the lives of others
  5. Interact with other individuals and groups
  6. Sympathize with and show their support for those directly affected

This video shows a recent and local protest on the streets of the Southside of Milwaukee, WI, where the community gathered to call for the protection of DACA.

Another misconception about social studies is that only adults take part in it. Youth’s involvement and role in social studies tends to go unnoticed because many are under the assumption that kids, who have not yet experienced much of life nor have attained much knowledge or wisdom, are not capable of contributing to society or having any sort of impact on the world.

However, quite the contrary is true. Kids can be just as powerful and impactful as adults. At times, they can have an even greater impact precisely because they are kids and as kids, they have a clearer, more innocent outlook on life.

Youth “do” social studies in more ways than imagined. A very common activity that children partake in but that is rarely recognized as “doing” social studies is discussion. When children have conversations with individuals or groups, they are, in one way or another, “doing” social studies. Participating in conversations is a great way for children to “do” social studies because it consists of taking an active role in social relationships. By interacting with others, hearing different perspectives, discussing their own view points, expressing their thoughts and feelings, and connecting with others’s stories and experiences, children are actively “doing” social studies.

This video is an example of 2nd-4th grade students “doing” social studies as they perform their own rendition of Lin-Manuel Miranda’s “Hamilton.” This is a great example of students “doing” social studies because it is evident that students took the material and interpreted in their own way to be able to perform it for an audience. They took history, listened to a different side that is usually not told, made it their own, and, to some extent, re-lived the past by literally putting themselves in the story and taking on different roles. Also, because they were able to fully engage with the material and presented it to an audience, their “doing” of social studies is a lot easier to assess in this situation. Their performance reflects their level of engagement and their investment with the material because in order to perform it well, they must first understand the message they must convey and incorporate props, movements, song, and emotion to do so.

Other examples of youth “doing” social studies are volunteering or doing community service, exploring other cultures and religions, witnessing social justice issues, interacting with people of different backgrounds, acknowledging the diversity within their own homes and the people around them, picking up garbage around their neighborhood, recycling in their homes, being considerate of the amount of water they use, fundraising money for organizations or humanitarian causes, and much more. A few methods of assessment for a non-traditional approach to social studies might be:

  1. Visual respresentations of past and/or current events with captions summarizing students’s explanation of what happened
  2. Visual representations of students’s reactions (physical and/or emotional) to particular stories or shared life experiences
  3. Written reflections about personal encounters or experiences out in the community
  4. A retelling of a story or conversation of students “doing” social studies outside of the classroom
  5. Written responses to the way in which current events were featured in news/media coverage and how it impacted them

A storymap is another example of “doing” social studies because it can serve as a timeline of events that in one way or another impacted an individual, or a group of individuals, while simultaneously telling a story and making it more personal. I created my own storymap to illustrate part of my family’s journey migrating from Mexico to the United States. By mapping this out, I got a better geographical understanding of the long journey that my grandparents, parents, and extended family members made by moving to the United States. It was very impactful because as I reflected on the difficulties, sacrifices, and social injustices that my family has experienced, I realized how strong that has made us and how it has shaped our character. At the same time, it also brought me joy and pride to remind myself of where I come from and what I’ve been through to be where I am today. If that isn’t authentic intellectual work of social studies itself, I don’t know what is.

 

New Year, New Me! Right?

By Leslie Alton

coffee cupEvery year January rolls around and people choose to push off the changes in their life that they wish to make until January 1st. Sometimes these changes stick for people, and for others once January ends so does their resolution. Personally, every year I try to add an activity or increase the amount of time that I devote to self-care. One of the self-care activities I have always left behind at the end of January is self-reflection. Why? Because who really likes to sit there and rehash how they feel about everything they have done in the past month, week, day, or even hour?

This year, the resolution of adding to my self-care regimen was pushed into high gear five months in advance. There was no waiting around until January 1st. The reason for this is because I began my Masters in Clinical Mental Health Counseling degree program here at Marquette. Yes, I understand that self-care is something critical to the field I am entering. Though the amount at which self-care was going to be launched upon me was far greater than I could have imagined. In every class we were assigned to look back on the activities we had done and things we had learned, many of which were placed in the context of our own lives. The first semester of graduate school is a whirlwind and every hour of my day was packed with class, work, daily living activities, repeat. Despite my packed schedule, self-care managed to wiggle itself into the agenda. This is partly because my professors integrated it into our assignments and partly because it helps me to balance the responsibilities I was juggling. In my Introduction to Counseling class Dr. Cook we compared the importance of self-care to the way flight attendants explain the order of which to put on your oxygen mask in the event of an emergency. If you do not first take care of yourself then you cannot as effectively take care of the people and responsibilities around you. This is especially applicable to the field that I am in, though I know it is applicable to any person or profession.

While I was forced to kick my New Year’s resolution off early, I am grateful that I did so. I believe that self-care is important to everyone’s wellbeing and is worth fitting it in to your busy schedule. Therefore, I am going to suggest a few ways to fit self-care into your life. Different things work better for different people, and I hope that if you find the right one you will carry it all the way into 2019 with you.

  1. There are a variety of meditation apps that take you through a guided breathing activity that is paired with peaceful music. Two specific apps are called “Breathe” and “Headspace”. With these apps you can choose from various lengths of recordings that address certain feelings you would like to pinpoint. A good time to fit this into your schedule is either a few minutes before bed or when you wake up. If you are a person who takes public transportation you could use this as a time to plug into the app and rejuvenate on your commute.
  2. Going for a walk during your lunch break is something that you can take a chunk from your break to get away from your office and have some time for yourself. The fresh air and moving of your muscles can help you to re-energize and make tackling the afternoon a bit easier.LA 2
  3. Exercise of any kind is a great form of self-care. It helps to release endorphins and contributes to physical health. Having a plan to exercise is a way to ensure that you fit it into your schedule. Whether that means scheduling a time for yourself in your agenda to go to the gym, or working out with a friend who holds you accountable. If you enjoy group workout classes, signing up for classes weekly will increase the likelihood of you staying on track since you made a monetary and vocal commitment. After creating a habit of exercise in your routine it will hopefully begin to feel necessary to ensure you engage in exercise.
  4. Healthy eating is a part of self-care that fuels your mind and your body. This is a popular resolution that people strive for, but it is hard to maintain. An easy way to keep this goal on track is to plan your meals for the week before you do your grocery shopping. This will not only help you to cook healthy meals since you are sticking to a grocery list that you have prepared, but it also can be a time saver as it can save from multiple trips to the grocery store each week.
  5. Preparing a few short mindfulness activities for yourself is a way to ensure you take a few minutes out of the day to reflect and be aware. This can be made easier by getting a book of mindfulness activities. Having the activities laid out for you makes following through with the goal more achievable. Books such as these can be found on Amazon or in local bookstores, or another option is finding some online for free.
  6. Journaling is a self-care task that to me sounded daunting for a long time. This was the case until I realized that journaling is for me and me only. There are no outside voices to critique or judge what you write. Giving yourself a prompt is helpful to spark your thoughts about what has been going on in your life lately. Personally, I am a fan of the rose and thorn technique (one positive and one negative event) that stuck out for me that day. Prompts such as these are helpful for when nothing to reflect on comes to mind.
  7. Sun salutations are a string of yoga poses that flow together and are used to get in touch with your body. They do not take more than five minutes, and getting into the routine of doing a sun salutation after waking up each morning can help to jumpstart your day with piece of mind.

Adding one or two of these activities to your schedule is a huge step in taking care of yourself. Taking the time to check in with what is going on in your life and body is key to managing your personal stress level and balancing your professional life with your personal life and wellbeing. I hope that you find a strategy that you can add to your routine in this new year, and the discipline to make this change past January 31st.

 

The Milwaukee Public Museum Poetry Competition Provides Inspiration, Motivation and Authentic Writing Opportunity for Wisconsin Students

By Elizabeth Jorgensen

Looking for a way to energize my classroom with authentic writing opportunities, I scour websites, newspapers, and online announcements for student-friendly writers’ markets. Although I could formulate a hypothetical audience for my classroom writing assignments, I find that student motivation increases with authentic opportunities. One Wisconsin-wide writers’ market is the Milwaukee Public Museum’s annual poetry competition. Now in its tenth year, the competition is open to Wisconsin students in grades 3–12.

The competition fits naturally inside Wisconsin English or social studies curricula as students are challenged to compose a poem in 30 lines or fewer as a response to the Museum’s permanent or temporary exhibits, collections, or fields of research. During the 2017–2018 school year, the Museum will celebrate the tenth anniversary of the competition with the theme “10 at MPM,” which focuses on “ten iconic exhibits that highlight the Museum, its collections, and mission, and celebrate its legacy as one of the region’s most treasured cultural institutions.” The ten exhibits are the Hebior Mammoth, Humpback Whale Skeleton, Streets of Old Milwaukee, Butterfly Vivarium, Hell Creek, Native American Pow Wow, Crow Indian Bison Hunt, Masai Lion Hunt, Crossroads of Civilization, and Japanese House and Garden.

(From left to right) Joey Hassler, Andrea Beaudry and Kenneth Walloch won the poetry competition during the 2016–2017 school year.

The submission deadline for next year’s competition is April 27, 2018, and teachers may submit one poem from each student by surface mail or submit electronically from a link on the poetry competition webpage. Although students could visit the museum, online resources allow them to research and create original poems without leaving the classroom.

Void of a rubric, student poems are “judged on creativity, originality, imagery, artistic quality, and sense of poetic expression.” But what do these terms mean?

To begin, I have students read the contest guidelines and create their own definitions of the judging criteria. They connect “imagery” to showing instead of telling. They define “artistic quality” as “how a poem is like art.” They agree that effective art evokes an emotion and makes the viewer (or in this case, reader) think or feel differently. Creativity, they decide, makes one submission stand out from the others, and they surmise that of the hundreds of statewide submissions, theirs will need to not only address the theme, but also be original. Throughout the discussion, I jot down notes for them to access later. This discussion helps them form an imaginary guideline of their own.

To further guide the writing process, students read and analyze previous winning poems, such as this 2013 winner, noting commonalities and how the poems fit the judging criteria:

Brenda Suhan, author of “Porcelain Deathbed”, won the MPM Poetry Competition during the 2012–2013 school year.

Porcelain Deathbed
Dresden Tete-a-Tete Tea Set
By Brenda Suhan

“Porcelain, the chilly

white of fresh Dresden snow

sits on the windowsill.

Kaleidoscope of rich

maroon and gold dances

in the winter sunshine.

The one gift she asked for.

He saved all his money

to grant a final wish:

Her childhood fantasy,

one luxury glowing

in the winter sunshine.

Fragility of life

released in wispy breaths

of steam soon extinguished.

Warmth of blood grows colder

than snowy porcelain

in the winter sunshine.

Just one more final sip,

smiling, content and free.

He smiles back, an echo

of their love forever,

cherished in this moment

in the winter sunshine.”

I ask the students what they notice. “There is a story,” one student says. We discuss how Suhan drew inspiration from a museum artifact (Dresden Tete-a-Tete Tea Set) and used her own creativity and voice to tell an original story that fits with the authenticity of the artifact. One student highlights the characters, themes, and conclusion. Another notices “interesting language choices.” I push for specifics, and the students say they notice the rule of thirds in the line “smiling, content and free,” and action verbs — “dances,” “sits,” “grows,” “released,” “extinguished,” “asked,” “saved,” “cherished.” Earlier in the semester, students learned about stylistic devices and literary terms. This discussion carries throughout the MPM poetry competition. No matter the writing assignment, they learn to identify stylistic devices and purposeful writing choices in exemplars and utilize them in their own work. “Her structure is strong,” another says. Students note six lines in each stanza, each line contains six syllables, and a repeating sixth line. While they comment on the use of enjambment and emotion, I continue adding notes to our brainstormed list.

You can find previous winning poems going back to the 2014–2015 school year on the Milwaukee Public Museum’s poetry competition webpage.

After we collaboratively analyze previous winning poems, I provide students with independent work time to immerse themselves in the MPM Poetry Competition’s website to look at additional poems for themes, inspiration and ideas. Although exemplars provide ideas, I caution them about mimicking a previous winning poem: “Your poem should be uniquely yours.” I remind students that poems will be judged on originality. The goal of the discussion is to remind them of their writing toolbox and inspire creativity.

Once students understand the purpose and background of this assignment, they decide on a topic that coincides with that year’s theme and something that interests, inspires or intrigues them. “Don’t do too much. Don’t take on everything all at once. Start small,” I say.

After choosing a topic, students share ideas and brainstorm. “Just brainstorm and freewrite about your topic. What does your topic smell, sound, taste like? What connections can you make between your topic and your own life? What stories could you tell? What do you want the purpose of your poem to be?”

Then, we make a list on the board of how to incorporate a structure: number of lines in each stanza, a repeated line or phrase, number of syllables in each line (or pattern of syllables), shape, headings or subtitles, theme, punctuation, pattern, rhyme, repetition. Students also share what structures were used in previous winning poems. They write first and second drafts of poems, peer edit, receive feedback from me, and continue to polish and perfect. Additionally, they take turns sharing drafts with the class and in small groups. They enjoy creating their own story and structure. They also appreciate the opportunity to write for an authentic audience and writers’ market.

Joey Hassler, a junior in my Creative Writing class, said, “I enjoyed submitting my work … I definitely didn’t think I had a chance at winning the competition, but writing is an art, and you never know when something you write might strike someone.” Another student, Andrea Beaudry, a junior, said, “Regardless of winning or not, each piece tells its very own story. I think that [students] should not feel pressured or think about the prize, but let the words flow. When you peacefully write something it ends up being a lot better than if you were stressed out trying to make it the best.”

During the 2016–2017 competition, three of my students were selected as winners: juniors Beaudry for “Summer Time Snack” and Hassler for “The Story Behind Food (11×26),” and senior Kenny Walloch for “Building the Perfect Calzone,” all posted on the MPM Winning Poems website.

This post was taken from an article I co-authored in the Wisconsin English Journal.


Hedderman, Richard and Jorgensen, Elizabeth. “Excavating the Soul: The Milwaukee Public Museum Student Poetry Competition.” The Wisconsin English Journal. Vol 59, No 1–2. Fall 2017.

Hope in Education

 Last summer, Carrie Sikich participated in the College of Education’s first faculty-led study abroad trip to Peru. While the weather here in Milwaukee is different than it was last June in Peru, the lessons learned still apply. As 2017 is coming to a close, we’re taking a look back at this year’s adventures.

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By Carrie Sikich

On one of our final days in Cusco, we visited a public school in the area. At the school, it was explained to us that a huge school priority is to incite cultural pride in the students. Many of the students are ashamed of their indigenous ancestry because it means discrimination against them for the rest of their lives. We were told that, no matter how educated these students become or how many languages they learn, they will always be more discriminated against than their white counterparts.  This statement struck a chord in me, as it did with the other people in my group, I believe. It struck me because of 1) the seemingly final nature of it and 2) the direct parallels with discrimination against minority students in the United States.

Teachers need to provide a critical hope that helps students to flourish, even in the worst of circumstances.

Later on in seminar, we spoke about what we had heard at the school. It was brought up that, after visiting the school, it became apparent that teachers of students who will always be discriminated against need to keep their expectations for those students’ futures real. What I brought up in response, but had a hard time putting into the right words, is that, although realistic expectations are important, this mentality often times leads teachers to become a part of the system that is oppressing the students for whom they fight so hard. I still didn’t know exactly what I was trying to say in that moment, until I read the final readings for this class. The Duncan-Andrade article, “Hope Required When Growing Roses in Concrete,” set off a lightbulb in my head. Duncan-Andrade put into words exactly what I was trying to say and exactly how I felt after leaving that school in Cusco. He talks about multiple kinds of hope in education; what I meant to say that day in Cusco is that, as educators, it is imperative that we empower our students with the right kind of hope: a hope that is realistic yet helps them to rise above and dismantle the oppressive system, not a hope that helps us become a part of that system.

IMG_0503 (1)Duncan-Andrade brings up three types of detrimental hopes: “hokey hope, mythical hope, and hope deferred.” “Hokey hope” is the kind hope that teachers give their students when they present them with the “bootstrap theory.” This theory is that anyone can get ahead if they work hard enough, and it completely ignores political and socioeconomic systems that oppress minorities. “Mythical hope” is the post-Obama administration, racism-is-dead, philosophy that once again undermines the struggles and oppression that people deal with every day. The final hope, “hope deferred,” I believe is the most common from what I have seen amongst teachers. It’s a belief that the system is unjust but that it is way too far out of teachers’ control to help students who are oppressed by this system. In my own understanding, and from what I saw in Cusco, when teachers at the school were talking about keeping their expectations real, they meant avoiding filling students’ heads with these kinds of hope. Hokey hope and mythical hope completely undermine what students who are discriminated against and whose families are discriminated against are going through. Teachers who teach these kinds of hopes ignore the reality of their students’ circumstances, and therefore provide false hope.

IMG_0563 (1)I think the error that many people in the field of education make is that, in order to avoid filling students with these kinds of false hope, they don’t include hope in the classroom environment at all. Duncan-Andrade provided me with a term for the kind of hope we should keep in our classrooms: critical hope. As he puts it, critical hope “demands a committed and active struggle against the evidence in order to change the deadly tides of wealth inequality, group xenophobia, and personal despair.” It is providing students with tools to act upon injustice, not to ignore reality. It is what I like to think of as an active hope, not a dreamy hope. I saw a lot of this kind of hope promoted in the schools we saw in Peru. We saw so many schools that were dedicated to teaching their students about their own unalienable human rights. In the Andes in particular, we saw schools that were attempting to close the gender gap in education and promote higher education for all. The school in Cusco wanted to fill their students with cultural pride so that instead of leaving, they grew up to make their own community a better place. This, I believe, is critical hope. It is hope for a better future someday, but it also the acknowledgement that making a better future someday begins today with solid action.

So going back to that day in seminar, here is what I would have said: yes, it is important to keep our expectations for our students and their circumstances real. We cannot fill them with hokey hope or hope that the discrimination against them will magically disappear once they graduate. However, if we as educators give up on our students’ futures, we are oppressing them as much the rest of the world is. We still need to fill them with hope, a hope that empowers them and enables us to stand with them in solidarity. Teachers need to provide a critical hope that helps students to flourish, even in the worst of circumstances. Duncan-Andrade talks about the pain that students feel and about not ignoring it, but acknowledging it as necessary to grow and to change the world as it is today. This what I saw in Peru and what I hope to take with me to Milwaukee, a place where so many students are told that they will not succeed by the very people whose job it is to help them. I wish to bring critical hope to my classroom so that my students are proud of who they are and know that they can make a concrete change for the better.

Flashback to Peru

IMG_4375Last summer, Sara Douvalakis and six other College of Education students participated in the College’s first faculty-led study abroad trip to Peru. Led by Drs. Melissa Gibson and Jeff LaBelle, S.J., the students wrote about their experience. For this #ThrowbackThursday, we aren’t going too far back in time– just to May 2017!
My name is Sara and I am a senior at Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. I am originally from a suburb of Chicago, and in the fall I will be a senior in the College of Ed with a double major in Psychology and Elementary Education. My hobbies include cooking, online shopping, grabbing coffee with friends, and of course eating!

I am traveling to Peru as part of a first time study abroad program  for education majors. This is the first time that the College of Education at MU has offered a study abroad program. While in Peru, I will be taking two courses for a total of 6 credits; the courses focus on Critical Issues in Education and Philosophy of Education. The courses will examine the philosophical underpinnings of various educational approaches in the US and Peru, as well as the key issues, policies, and practices that are part of global debate about what constitutes a high quality and equitable education.

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Day 1:
After two long flights from Chicago to Panama City and then to Lima Peru, we finally made it. Although my legs felt like Jell-O from sitting for almost nine hours in the plane, all of my luggage arrived and I am forever grateful for that. Phew! After weaving through late night Peruvian traffic, we arrived at our host family’s home. The home belongs to a family of four; MariLuz, her husband, Jose (our tour guide) and his sister Carla, who is currently in Columbia.

In the morning we were served fresh rolls and jelly for breakfast. Once our tummies were full, we headed out for our first of many walking tours. Our host brother, Jose, took us through the neighborhoods to the Jesuit University that is hosting us. We spent the day meeting locals, students, and other education students at Universidad Antonio Ruiz De Montoya (UARM). We walked around the beautiful outdoor campus, which was bustling with students from all over Peru.

During some presentations shown to us by administrators from UARM, we listened to a panel of students and professors who introduced us to some of the issues in education. The thing that most caught my attention was the fact that education is very centralized in Lima. Many people in the country do not have access to education like we do in the United States. Many of the people in the jungle and in the mountains are not able to travel hours a day for access to education. During the panel, there was a student who received the Beca (scholarship) 18, which is for students in very high poverty areas, and it provides them the opportunity to go to college on a full ride. This particular student was from the mountains of Peru without the opportunity to go to college; however, with this scholarship she is able to attend school for four years for absolutely no cost. While she was speaking it was clear that she had come great lengths to travel to the city of Lima and attend college in her non-native language. Stories like this are what motivate and excite me to be a teacher.

Once the presentations were over, Jose picked us back up at UARM, and we were off to another tour. This time he led us through the neighborhood/district, which we are staying in called Jesus Maria. Lima is split into districts and neighborhoods each with historical names. The streets are lined with panaderías and cevicherías. As well as shoe stores, hair dressers and nail salons (so many nail salons). We then made our way to the plaza of Jesus Maria where locals gather around in the town square. After a quick stop for ice cream, we made our way back to the house where we were served a traditional Peruvian dinner of garlic rice and meat stew with potatoes.

Overall today was a whirlwind. I quickly learned that my Spanish is nowhere near where I thought it was and that winter in Peru is actually nicer than most days in Milwaukee. It is past 10 pm here and tomorrow breakfast is being served at 6 am…. yikes!

Day 2:
Day two began with our alarm going off at 5:30 am (thank goodness for Peruvian coffee). After a sit down breakfast of freshly blended jugo de papaya y piña and pan we were off to MLK Socio Deportivo School to play futból with local children who live in the district of EL Agustino. This is one of the 49 districts of Lima; it was filled with abundant markets and hustle and bustle at every corner. MLK is a program founded by ex-gang members who are trying to enrich the community and provide opportunities for children growing up in this district. Although this is one of the poorer districts, it was my favorite location so far. Right away, I noticed friendly locals welcoming us, and beautifully colored homes lining the streets. Wild dogs and cats joined us on our walks through the neighborhoods, and even on the futból field.

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The children of el Agustino made us feel welcome right away and were so curious about different English words and toys that we have in America. The boys were fascinated with my light eyes and blonde hair, since many Peruvians have darker hair and eyes. We were split into soccer teams and played short scrimmages against each other. I even scored a goal! Through this activity the children are taught sportsmanship, respect, and conflict/resolution. MLK Socio Deportivo School is working with the community to bring families and children together in a positive way.

IMG_4351Now for the best part of the day…lunch! The lunch we were served today was a lunch for the gods, no joke. We had fresh ceviche (which I wanted to take home in my backpack), fried fish, rice with seafood and different corn salads. El Agustino is like no place I have ever been, and I was absolutely fascinated with all of the sights before me. I could have walked up and down those streets forever.

After a long and nauseating car ride in Peruvian traffic, we went back to the host university for our first official seminar. Here we talked about our readings, reflected on our first impressions, and talked about the big ideas for our courses (don’t forget I am here for school after all). And now here I am, in the living room of my homestay writing my first blog ever with my six amigas. Soon dinner will be served to us by MariLuz, and we will finish up our very first blog posts for all the world to enjoy (or mostly my mom). I am so blessed to be here and have loved every minute; although my body and brain are exhausted, I cannot wait to wake up the next morning and have a new set of incredible experiences.

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Today’s lessons:

  • “Children are seeds, who have the potential to grow into beautiful flowers and teachers are the sunlight that can get them there” –Rodrigo from the UARM Student panel
  • Do NOT flush toilet paper. It must be thrown into the trash…yeah, it is an adjustment.
  • Winter in Peru is interesting. Wear layers because one minute you are sweating and another minute you are “freezing.”

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